Creating backups with rsnapshot

In this article, let us review how to backup remote Linux host using this utility.

1. Setup Key Based Authentication

As we’ve explained earlier setup the key based authentication as explained either in ssh-keygen and ssh-copy-id article or openSSH article.

[root@local-host]# ssh-keygen

[root@local-host]# ssh-copy-id -i ~/.ssh/ remote-host

2. Verify the password less login between servers

Login to the remote-host from local-host without entering the password.

[root@local-host]# ssh remote-host
Last login: Sun Mar 15 16:45:40 2009 from local-host


3. Configure rsnapshot and specify Remote Host Backup Directories

Define your remote-host destination backup directories in /etc/rsnapshot.conf as shown below. In this example,

  • root@remote-host:/etc – Source directory on the remote-host that should be backed-up. i.e remote backup destination directory.
  • remote-host-backup/ – destination directory where the backup of the remote-host will be stored. Please note that this directory will be created under local-host /.snapshots/{internal.n}/ directory as shown in the last step.
# vi /etc/rsnapshot.conf

backup  root@remote-host:/etc/  remote-host-backup/  exclude=mtab,exclude=core

4. Test rsnapshot Configuration

Perform configuration test to make sure rsnapshot is setup properly and ready to perform Linux rsync backup.



# rsnapshot configtest
Syntax OK

5. Add Crontab Entry for rsnapshot

Once you’ve verified that the rsync hourly and daily backup configurations are setup properly in the rsnapshot cwrsync utility, it is time to set this puppy up in the crontab as shown below.

# crontab -e
0 */4 * * * /usr/local/bin/rsnapshot hourly
30 23 * * * /usr/local/bin/rsnapshot daily

Check out Linux crontab examples article to understand how to setup and configure crontab.

6. Manually test the remote-host backup once

[root@local-host]# /usr/local/bin/rsnapshot hourly

[root@local-host]# ls -l /.snapshots/hourly.0/
total 8
drwxr-xr-x 3 root root 4096 Jul 22 04:19 remote-host-backup
drwxr-xr-x 3 root root 4096 Jul 13 05:07 localhost

[root@local-host]# ls -l /.snapshots/hourly.0/remote-host-backup/
total 4
drwxr-xr-x 93 root root 4096 Jul 22 03:36 etc

Troubleshooting Tips

Problem: rsnapshot failed with ERROR: /usr/bin/rsync returned 20 as shown below.

[root@local-host]# /usr/local/bin/rsnapshot hourly
rsync error: received SIGINT, SIGTERM, or SIGHUP (code 20) at rsync.c(260)
rsnapshot encountered an error! The program was invoked with these options:
/usr/local/bin/rsnapshot hourly
ERROR: /usr/bin/rsync returned 20 while processing copyman@

Solution: This typically happens when the users who is performing the rsnapshot (rsync) doesn’t have access to the remote directory that you are trying to backup. Make sure the remote host backup directory has appropriate permission for the user who is trying to execute the rsnapshot.

Extracting files from popular package formats

1. RPM package in Redhat / CentOS / Fedora

Listing the files from a RPM package using rpm -qlp

RPM stands for Red Hat package manager. The following example shows how to view the files available in a RPM package without extracting or installing the rpm package.

$ rpm -qlp ovpc-2.1.10.rpm

Explanation of the command: rpm -qlp ovpc-2.1.10.rpm

  • rpm — command
  • q — query the rpm file
  • l — list the files in the package
  • p — specify the package name

Extracting the files from a RPM package using rpm2cpio and cpio

RPM is a sort of a cpio archive. First, convert the rpm to cpio archive using rpm2cpio command. Next, use cpio command to extract the files from the archive as shown below.

$ rpm2cpio ovpc-2.1.10.rpm | cpio  -idmv

$ ls .

2. Deb package in Debian

deb is the extension of Debian software package format. *.deb is also used in other distributions that are based on Debian. (for example: Ubuntu uses *.deb)

Listing the files from a debian package using dpkg -c

dpkg is the package manager for debian. So using dpkg command you can list and extract the packages, as shown below.

To view the content of *.deb file:

$ dpkg -c ovpc_1.06.94-3_i386.deb
dr-xr-xr-x root/root         0 2010-02-25 10:54 ./                                                                                          
dr-xr-xr-x root/root         0 2010-02-25 10:54 ./ovpc/                                                                                    
dr-xr-xr-x root/root         0 2010-02-25 10:54 ./ovpc/pkg/                                                                            
dr-xr-xr-x root/root         0 2010-02-25 10:54 ./ovpc/pkg/lib/                                                                 
dr-xr-xr-x root/root         0 2010-02-25 10:48 ./ovpc/pkg/lib/header/                                                      
-r-xr-xr-x root/root       130 2009-10-29 17:06 ./ovpc/pkg/lib/header/                                   

-r-xr-xr-x root/root       131 2009-10-29 17:06 ./ovpc/pkg/etc/conf                                   
dr-xr-xr-x root/root         0 2010-02-25 10:54 ./ovpc/pkg/etc/conf/log.conf   

Extracting the files from a debian package using dpkg -x

Use dpkg -x to extract the files from a deb package as shown below.

$ dpkg -x  ovpc_1.06.94-3_i386.deb /tmp/ov
$ ls /tmp/ov

DEB files are ar archives, which always contains the three files — debian-binary, control.tar.gz, and data.tar.gz. We can use ar command and tar command to extract and view the files from the deb package, as shown below.

First, extract the content of *.deb archive file using ar command.

$ ar -vx ovpc_1.06.94-3_i386.deb
x - debian-binary
x - control.tar.gz
x - data.tar.gz

Next, extract the content of data.tar.gz file as shown below.

$ tar -xvzf data.tar.gz 

3. Depot package in HP-UX

Listing the files from a depot package using tar and swlist

DEPOT file is a HP-UX Software Distributor Catalog Depot file. HP-UX depots are just a tar file, with some additional information as shown below.

$ tar -tf ovcsw_3672.depot

swlist is a HP-UX command which is used to display the information about the software. View the content of the depot package as shown below using swlist command.

$ swlist -l file -s /root/ovcsw_3672.depot
# Initializing...
# Contacting target "osgsw"...
# Target:  osgsw:/root/ovcsw_3672.depot

# OcswServer			8.50.000       Ocsw  Server product
# OcswServer.MGR     		9.00.140       Ocs Server Ovw

Extracting the files from a depot package using swcopy

Swcopy command copies or merges software_selections from a software source to one or more software depot target_selections. Using uncompress option in swcopy, you can extract the files from a depot software package.

$ swcopy -x uncompress_files=true -x enforce_dependencies=false -s /root/ovcsw_3672.depot \* @ /root/extracted/
$ ls /root/extracted
MGR	catalog	 osmsw.log

Since depot files tar files, you can extract using normal tar extraction as shown below.

$ tar -xvf filename

4. MSI in Windows

Microsoft installer is an engine for the installation, maintenance, and removal of software on windows systems.

Listing the files from a MSI package using lessmsi

The utility called lessmsi.exe is used to view the files from the msi packages with out installing. The same utility is also used to extract the msi package. Select the msi which you want to view the content. lessmsi will list the files available in msi.

Extracting the files from a MSI package using msiexec

Windows Installer Tool (Msiexec.exe) is used to extract the files from the MSI package. It can open a MSI package in “Administrator” installation mode, where it can extract the files without performing the install as shown below.

C:\>msiexec /a ovcsw_3672.msi /qb TARGETDIR="C:\ovcsw"

Using the Debian package manager

On Debian, dpkg (Debian package system) allows you to install and remove the software packages. dpkg is the simplest way to install and uninstall a package.

Debian now supplies a tool named Apt (for “A Package Tool”) and aptitude to help the administrators to add or remove software more easily. Refer to our earlier Manage packages using apt-get for more details.

Installing a Deb Using dpkg -i

dpkg -i package-file-name

-i is to install a package.

The following example installs the Debian package for tcl tool.

$ dpkg -i tcl8.4_8.4.19-2_amd64.deb
Selecting previously deselected package tcl8.4.
(Reading database ... 94692 files and directories currently installed.)
Unpacking tcl8.4 (from tcl8.4_8.4.19-2_amd64.deb) ...
Setting up tcl8.4 (8.4.19-2) ...
Processing triggers for menu ...
Processing triggers for man-db ...

You can verify the installation of package using dpkg -l packagename as shown below.

$ dpkg -l | grep 'tcl'
ii  tcl8.4                               8.4.19-2                   Tcl (the Tool Command Language) v8.4 - run-t

The above command shows that tcl package is installed properly. ‘ii’ specifies status ‘installed ok installed’.

Uninstalling a Deb using dpkg -r

dpkg with -r option removes the installed package.



$ dpkg -r tcl8.4
(Reading database ... 94812 files and directories currently installed.)
Removing tcl8.4 ...
Processing triggers for man-db ...
Processing triggers for menu ...

Now list the package and check the status.

# dpkg -l | grep 'tcl'
rc  tcl8.4                                8.4.19-2                   Tcl (the Tool Command Language) v8.4 - run-t

rc stands for ‘removed ok config-files’. The remove action didn’t purge the configuration files. The status of each installed package will be available in /var/lib/dpkg/status. Status of tcl8.4 package looks like,

Package: tcl8.4
Status: deinstall ok config-files
Priority: optional
Section: interpreters
Installed-Size: 3308

The following command is used to purge the package completely.

$ dpkg -P tcl8.4
(Reading database ... 94691 files and directories currently installed.)
Removing tcl8.4 ...
Purging configuration files for tcl8.4 ...
Processing triggers for menu ...
$ dpkg -l | grep 'tcl'

So the package is completely removed, and the status in the /var/lib/dpkg/status is given below.

Package: tcl8.4
Status: purge ok not-installed
Priority: optional
Section: interpreters

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